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PERGE

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The Ancient City of Perge is located within the borders of Aksu district, which is 18 km away from Antalya. During the Hellenistic period, it became one of the most beautiful and magnificent cities in the world. Prehistoric caves and ancient settlements can be found in the Perge region. The settlement examples in Perge show that the Pamphylia plain has been a popular and suitable area for settlement since prehistoric times. It has been accepted that the plateau plane of the Perge acropolis has been a preferred area for settlement since prehistoric times. Studies of the Perge acropolis by Wolfram Martini have shown that BC. From 4000 or 3000 BC, the acropolis plateau was used as a residential area. Obsidian and flint finds, which are among the archaeological finds, reveal that Perge has been used as a settlement since the Neolithic Age and the Copper Age. When the Hattusa excavations are examined, it is understood that the city of Perge was an important settlement in the Hittite Empire. On the Perge city coin, the chief goddess of the city, Artemis Pergaia, was always written as Wanassa Preiis. Preiis or Preiia is most likely the name of the city. On early Aspendos coins the name of the city was written as "Estwediiys" and in Syllion as "Selyviis". According to Strabo, the Pamphylian dialect was foreign to the Hellenes. Inscriptions written in the local language were found in Side and Sillyon. Arrian says in Anabasis: When the Kymelians came to Side, they forgot their own language and started to speak the local language in a short time. The mentioned language is sidece. From this it can be concluded: While Perge, Syllion and Aspendos spoke Pamphylian dialect and Hellenic, Sidece continued to be an active language in and around Side, and Sidece is considered a language belonging to the Luwian language group. B.C. When Alexander the Great won the Battle of Granikos in 334, he liberated Asia Minor from the rule of the Achaemenid Empire. According to Arrian, the people of Perga made contact with Alexander the Great in the city of Phaselis before they came to Pamphylia. The King of Macedonia sent his army from Lycia to Pamhylia by the way that the Thracians had opened over the Taurus, and he reached Perge by following the coastline with his close commanders. Since Arrian did not mention any war between the city of Perge and the Macedonian army, the city must have opened its doors to the king without a fight. Although the city was protected by a strong city wall in the classical period, he must not have wanted to fight the mighty Macedonian Army. Alexander the Great then continued his progress towards Aspendos and Side, and when he reached Side, he returned to Perge via Aspendos. B.C. In 334, he appointed Nearchos as Satrap of the Lycia-Pamphylia State. Later BC. He goes to Gordion to spend the winter of 334/333. Nearchos BC. He went to Alexander the Great's camp in the city of Zariaspa in Bactria in 329/328. No Satrap's name is mentioned after this date, indicating that Lycia and Pamhylia were most likely connected to the Great Phrygian Satrap. After the Treaty of Apameia, the region (Pamphylia) was divided into two. In the text of the treaty, the boundaries of the Kingdom of Pergamum and the Seleucid Kingdoms were not determined precisely. Based on the text, we can conclude that the Pergamon Kingdom, including Perge, had Western Pamphylia, with Aksu (Kestros) as its border. Aspendos and Side remained independent and both cities became allies of the Romans. Despite the Treaty of Apemaia, the Kingdom of Pergamon wanted to dominate Pamphylia. Aspendos, Side and maybe Sillyon preserved their independence with the help of Rome. Therefore, King II. Attalos had to establish the city of Attaleia in order to have a port in the Southern Mediterranean. Roman writer Livy, Roman Consul Cn. Manlius Vulso wanted to capture the city of Perge. The city requested permission from the consul to ask King Antiochos to surrender the city without a fight. Cn. Manlius Vulso waited for news from Antioch. Reason for waiting for the council; This can be attributed to the city's strong defense system and the fact that the Seleucids had a strong garrison in the city. Looking at the writings of E. C. Bosch; After the Apemeia Peace, Western Pamphylia belonged to the Pergamon Kingdom within the aforementioned borders. But Perge was independent in internal affairs, although not completely free. At the request of Cm Manlius Vulso, he was freed from the sovereignty of the Seleucids. Apparently, there was a permanent change in the border line and border cities between the Kingdom of Pergamum and the Seleucid Kingdom. B.C. In 133, the Kingdom of Pergamon III. It was transferred to the Roman Republic with the will of Attalos. The Romans established the Province of Asia in Western Anatolia. But Pamphylia remained outside the borders of this state. One of the points that has not been clarified until now is whether the Western Pamphylia part belonging to the Pergamon Kingdom was included within the borders of the Province of Asia. Perhaps the cities of Pamphylia were freed for a while or were included in the province. The Kingdom of Pergamum ruled Western Pamphylia until Kestros. The river formed the natural boundary.